Glossary beginning with E

Early Closing Association

A Victorian organisation formed by retail workers in the 1850s who were trying to improve their working conditions. One of their goals was to legislate shop closing times.


An odd manner or way of thinking; unconventional habits. 

Economic depression

A period of low growth and high unemployment.


Words or actions designed to appeal to certain emotions. Emotive language is used to persuade the reader of a particular point of view and is usually a sign of bias.

Entrenching tool

A shovel and pick that can be folded to be more easily carried.


Items designed to function for only a short-time, for example tickets, pamphlets, etc.

Equal pay

Equal pay was a concept of the womens? rights movement of the 19th century that fought for equal wages for men and women doing the same job.


The process by which the soil and other surfaces are worn away by the action of wind, water and other forces.


A flat expanse that drops off in a cliff or a sharp slope.


When a neutral word or phrase is used in place of a rude, offensive or socially unacceptable word. For example, in America, people call the toilet, 'the bathroom'.


Critically assess the ideas in the question.


The effort to convert men and women to Christianity and to spread the teachings of Jesus.


An extremely high rate or cost; especially common where there is no other option for the consumer.


Describe and clarify the meaning of ideas in the question.

Export duty

A fee charged on goods (usually luxury or non-essential commodities like alcohol and tobacco) entering or exiting a region.


Biological term refering to when an animal or plant species dies out and disppears.


When an alleged criminal is returned to the town or country where they were accused of a crime.


Enthusiastic; happy and excited.